Heavily armed Knights, armed with medieval weapons such as lances and a varied assortment of hand weapons, played a significant part in the battles of the Middle Ages. The heavy cavalry consisted of wealthy Knights and noblemen who could afford the equipment and non-noble squires employed by the noblemen.
Medieval weapons consisted of many different types of ranged and hand-held objects:
Battle Axe: The battle axe was specifically designed for use in close quarter fighting. Many were suitable for use in one hand while others were much larger and were wielded with two hands. Axes designed for warfare ranged in weight from 1 to 6 pounds and in length from 1 to 5 feet. Axes were always cheaper than swords and far more available.
Bow: The bow was invented to project arrows at the enemy. A bow is essentially a spring and when the bow is drawn energy is stored in the bow and released into rapid forward motion when the arrow is released. The bow was a popular medieval weapon but with the development of gunpowder and muskets it was soon replaced as a weapon of war.
Arming Sword: This sword was sometimes called a Knight’s sword and is a single handed sword of the High Middle Ages in common use between ca. 1000 and 1350. The sword was typically used with a shield or buckler and was the standard military sword of the Knight and was merely called a “war sword.” The arming sword was overall a light and versatile weapon capable of both cuts and thrust combat and boasts excellent balance.
Flail: The Flail is a weapon commonly attributed to the Middle Ages. There is evidence of a long handled Flail as a weapon of war in the latter Middle Ages. The weapon sometimes called mace and chain or ball and chain was a stock figure in Victorian literature and thus became entrenched in popular medieval fantasy. Typically, the weapon is depicted as one or more weights attached to a handle with a hinge or chain.
Halberd: A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. The halberd consists of an axe blade topped with a spike mounted on the long shaft. It always has a hook or thorn on the back side of the axe blade which could be used to pull horsemen to the ground. The halberd was cheap to produce and very versatile in battle.
War Hammer: A war hammer is a late medieval weapon of war intended for close combat. The war hammer consists of a handle and a head. Long war hammers were pole weapons meant for use against riders, whereas short ones were used in closer quarters and from horseback. Later war hammers often had a spike on one side of the head, thus making it a more versatile weapon. War hammers were developed as a consequence of the ever more prevalent surface-hardened steel of suits of armor. The surface of the armor was now as hard as the edge of a blade so the hammer was designed to deliver a crippling blow with its full force being delivered to the armor.
Mace: A mace is basically a club that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows. A mace differs from a hammer in that the head of a mace is radially symmetric so that a blow can be delivered equally effectively with any side of the head. A mace consists of a strong, heavy wooded, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel.
There are many other Medieval Weapons and you can find a more detailed list with descriptions at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_weapons